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Research of December 2021

Patricia Cruz



Here is a list of all academic peer-reviewed articles, reports and other papers published in December 2021 about journalism research. The bolded titles have JRN articles written about the studies.

Published Title Author(s) Journal / publisher
2021-12-01 Artificial Intelligence and Journalism: An Agenda for Journalism Research in Africa Ammina Kothari & Sally Ann Cruikshank African Journalism Studies
2021-12-01 Harassment’s Toll on Democracy: The Effects of Harassment Towards US Journalists Kaitlin C. Miller Journalism Practice
2021-12-01 Black woman in and beyond Belgian mainstream media: between opinion–making, dissidence, and marronage Emma-Lee Amponsah Feminist Media Studies
2021-12-01 An Emotional Rally: Exploring Commenters’ Responses to Online News Coverage of the COVID-19 Crisis in Austria Olga Eisele, Olga Litvyak, Verena K. Brändle, Paul Balluff, Andreas Fischeneder, Catherine Sotirakou, Pamina Syed Ali & Hajo G. Boomgaarden Digital Journalism
2021-12-01 Social Media Editors and the Audience Funnel: Tensions between Commercial Pressures and Professional Norms in the Data-Saturated Newsroom Tai Neilson & Timothy A. Gibson Digital Journalism
2021-12-01 You Are Fake News! Factors Impacting Journalists’ Debunking Behaviors on Social Media Magdalena Saldaña & Hong Tien Vu Digital Journalism
2021-12-01 Interactive Data Visualization Enhances Preventive Intentions in COVID-19 News Stories: The Mediating Role of Fear and the Moderating Role of Political Orientation Jeeyun Oh & Angel Hsing-Chi Hwang Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media
2021-12-02 Exploring Communicative AI: Reflections from a Swedish Newsroom Agnes Stenbom, Mattias Wiggberg & Tobias Norlund Digital Journalism
2021-12-02 Habitual Generation of Filter Bubbles: Why is Algorithmic Personalisation Problematic for the Democratic Public Sphere? Jernej Kaluža Javnost – The Public
2021-12-02 Journalistic Relations and Values in the Networked Era: A Case Study of The Guardian Vaios Papanagnou Journalism Practice
2021-12-02 How Headline Strategies and News Sources Affect Number of User Clicks on WeChat Yuting Sun & Chaoyun Liang Journalism Practice
2021-12-03 Shield and sword: discursive kevlar and national review’s discourses on the first trump impeachment (2019-2020) Brian Michael Goss Atlantic Journal of Communication
2021-12-03 “Down the Middle”: CNN 10 and the Ideology of Objectivity Perry Parks Journalism Practice
2021-12-03 What is Fox News? Partisan Journalism, Misinformation, and the Problem of Classification A.J. Bauer, Anthony Nadler, Jacob L. Nelson
Electronic News
2021-12-03 Minority ethnic media: challenges for the future Hsin-yi Sandy Tsai Asian Journal of Communication
2021-12-04 Question design and the construction of populist stances in political news interviews Joanna Thornborrow, Mats Ekström, Marianna Patrona
Discourse & Communication
2021-12-04 Understanding the Public’s Animosity Toward News Media: Cynicism and Distrust as Related but Distinct Negative Media Perceptions Čedomir Markov, Young Min
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
2021-12-04 Forum: (De)centring Europe in urban communication research Giorgia Aiello Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies
2021-12-06 Their floods and Our floods: News values of flood photo galleries of Associated Press and Xinhua News Agency Hailing Yu, Guangfeng Chen
2021-12-06 No Such Thing as a TV News Company?
Electronic News
2021-12-06 Seeking the Legitimation of Mainstream Journalism: A Portuguese Case-Study Claudia Alvares, Gustavo Cardoso, Miguel Crespo & Ana Pinto-Martinho Journalism Practice
2021-12-07 How Do Traditional Media Function in Social Learning about AI? Psychological and Cognitive Reactions to AI-Powered Communication Yiwei Li,Yu Guo &Siyu Liu Communication Studies
2021-12-07 Editor’s introduction Tessa Adams
Journal of Communication Inquiry
2021-12-07 Patterns of media use and leisure time among older adults Sonya Dal Cin, Matea Mustafaj, Karen Nielsen
New Media & Society
2021-12-07 “The Paper Is White”: Examining Diversity Issues With the Next Generation of Journalists Teri Finneman, Marina A. Hendricks, Piotr S. Bobkowski Journalism & Mass Communication Educator
2021-12-08 Closing the Cover: Changes Coming to Digital Journalism Scott A. Eldridge II Digital Journalism
2021-12-08 Mimicry, Fragmentation, or Decoupling? Three Scenarios for the Control Function of EU Correspondents Asimina Michailidou, Hans-Jörg Trenz
The International Journal of Press/Politics
2021-12-08 Mixed findings in directly replicated experimental studies on fake news C. Sean Burns, Renee Kaufmann, Anthony Limperos First Monday
2021-12-08 Locating oneself and talking past: Journalists’ engagement with Pacific communities on Twitter Tara Ross
Media International Australia
2021-12-09 Tackling the emotional toll together: How journalists address harassment with connective practices Anu Kantola, Anu A Harju
2021-12-09 Something that They Never Said: Multimodal Disinformation and Source Vividness in Understanding the Power of AI-Enabled Deepfake NewsOpen Data Jiyoung Lee & Soo Yun Shin Media Psychology
2021-12-09 ‘His Political Life Story Told in Pictures’: The Visual Construction of the Political Persona of Joseph Chamberlain Betto van Waarden Media History
2021-12-09 Ethnic Selective Exposure: A Test of Cultural-Identity Based Media Selectivity Theory Mingxiao Sui Mass Communication and Society
2021-12-09 Readers think for themselves Tim Luckhurst
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 What are they paying us for? James Harkin
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 But we didn’t know anyone: New recruits to the industry Adam Samuel
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 Hollow words save no-one Lynne O’Donnell
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 A doomed TV start-up Kevin Duffy
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 Could the good times roll again? Bill Hagerty
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 We can still make money from news Dominic Young
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 If Paul Dacre is the wrong fit… Alan Moses
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 Monuments to a golden past Nick Jenkins
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 Room at the top KF
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 Half the money, twice the value Polly Graham
British Journalism Review
2021-12-09 Iconic war images and the myth of the ‘good American Soldier’ Megan MacKenzie
Media, War & Conflict
2021-12-10 Subverting Journalistic Routines: When Political Satire Intervenes to Challenge Public Broadcasting National Discourses Danford Zirugo African Journalism Studies
2021-12-10 The Influence of News Coverage on Humanitarian Aid: The Bureaucrats’ Perspective Martin Scott, Mel Bunce & Kate Wright Journalism Studies
2021-12-10 News by Popular Demand: Ideological Congruence, Issue Salience, and Media Reputation in News Sharing Natalia Aruguete, Ernesto Calvo, Tiago Ventura
The International Journal of Press/Politics
2021-12-10 Encoding polysemy in the news Lillian Boxman-Shabtai
2021-12-11 Deepfakes, misinformation and disinformation and authenticity infrastructure responses: Impacts on frontline witnessing, distant witnessing, and civic journalism Sam Gregory
2021-12-11 Conservative news nonprofits: Claiming legitimacy without transparency Michael Buozis, Magda Konieczna
2021-12-11 Journalists as mobility agents: Labor mobilities, individualized identities, and emerging organizational forms Víctor Hugo Reyna
2021-12-12 A typology of alternative online political media in the United Kingdom: A longitudinal content analysis (2015–2018) Declan McDowell-Naylor, Stephen Cushion, Richard Thomas
2021-12-13 When the mainstream takes over: political magazines’ attempts to cultivate alternativeness in Finland Ullamaija Kivikuru The Journal of International Communication
2021-12-13 The Mediatization of Political Personae, 1880s–1930s Betto van Waarden & Martin Kohlrausch Media History
2021-12-13 The Prison Media Complex: Labour, Technology and Communication Infrastructures in the Prison System Fredrik Stiernstedt,
Anne Kaun
Triple C
2021-12-13 When do agentless passives mystify social actors in the minds of readers? Will Lingle
Critical Discourse Studies
2021-12-13 Funding Democracy: Public Media and Democratic Health in 33 Countries Timothy Neff, Victor Pickard
The International Journal of Press/Politics
2021-12-13 How Race and Gender Impact the Perceived Objectivity of Broadcast Women of Color on Twitter Kelli S. Boling, Denetra Walker
Social Media + Society
2021-12-13 Courting Coverage: Rhetorical Newsworthiness Cues and Candidate-Media Agenda Convergence in Presidential Primaries Zachary Scott
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
2021-12-14 From blame to context: how official responses influence negative media portrayal of country image Michael O. Ukonu, Ifeanyi L. Anorue, Cynthia Emeafor & Nnamdi Ajaebili The Journal of International Communication
2021-12-14 Beyond verification: Flesh witnessing and the significance of embodiment in conflict news Lilie Chouliaraki, Omar Al-Ghazzi
2021-12-14 Political Information Use and Its Relationship to Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Among the German Public Christian Schemer, Marc Ziegele, Tanjev Schultz, Oliver Quiring, Nikolaus Jackob, Ilka Jakobs
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
2021-12-14 Africa’s global media image in a digital world as an exclusive western preserve? Chikaire Wilfred Williams Ezeru
International Communication Gazette
2021-12-14 Media coverage of climate change induced migration: Implications for meaningful media discourse Maria Sakellari
Global Media and Communication
2021-12-15 “We Have to act Like our Devices are Already Infected”: Investigative Journalists and Internet Surveillance Philip Di Salvo Journalism Practice
2021-12-15 Best Prosody for News: A Psychophysiological Study Comparing a Broadcast to a Narrative Speaking Style Emma Rodero, Lucía Cores-Sarría*
Communication Research
2021-12-15 Comparing newspapers in mainland China and Hong Kong: The limits of media systems theory Haiyan Wang, Nan Lyu
Global Media and China
2021-12-16 U.S. Public Opinion on China and the United States During the U.S.–China Trade Dispute: The Role of Audience Framing and Partisan Media Use Louisa Ha, Rik Ray, Peiqin Chen, Ke Guo Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
2021-12-16 The dependence of election coverage on political institutions: Political competition and policy framing in Germany and the United Kingdom Iain McMenamin, Michael Courtney, Michael Breen, , Gemma McNulty
2021-12-16 Framing Migration in Southern European Media: Perceptions of Spanish, Italian, and Greek Specialized Journalists Carlos Arcila-Calderón, David Blanco-Herrero, María Matsiola, Martín Oller-Alonso, Theodora Saridou, Sergio Splendore Journalism Practice
2021-12-16 The Rise of Social Journalism: An Explorative Case Study of a Youth-oriented Instagram News Account Jonathan Hendrickx Journalism Practice
2021-12-17 How Do Chinese Media Frame Arab Uprisings: A Content Analysis Shiming Hu, Weipeng Hou, Jinghong Xu Media and Communication
2021-12-17 From Chiapas to Palestine: Historicizing Social Movement Media Before and Beyond the Arab Uprisings Gretchen King Media and Communication
2021-12-17 The Role of Media and Communication in Reducing Uncertainty During the Syria War Claudia Kozman, Rana Tabbara, Jad Melki Media and Communication
2021-12-17 The Subtle Dynamics of Power Struggles in Tunisia: Local media since the Arab Uprisings Noah Bassil, Nourhan Kassem Media and Communication
2021-12-17 A Case Study: Mada Masr—A Progressive Voice in Egypt and Beyond Nadia Leihs Media and Communication
2021-12-17 Understanding Emerging Media: Voice, Agency, and Precarity in the Post-2011 Arab Mediasphere Yazan Badran Media and Communication
2021-12-17 Beyond Mainstream Media and Communication Perspectives on the Arab Uprisings Hanan Badr, Lena-Maria Möller Media and Communication
2021-12-17 Signaling News Outlet Credibility in a Google Search Gina M. Masullo, Taeyoung Lee, Martin J. Riedl
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
2021-12-17 Telling Every Story: Characteristics of Systematic Reporting David Caswell Journalism Practice
2021-12-18 Understanding the Present Through the Past: A Comparison of Spanish News Coverage of the 1918 Flu and COVID-19 Pandemics Samantha N. Edwards
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
2021-12-19 The Cultivation of Emotions in the Press:
Searching for ‘Education of the Heart’ in German-Language Digital Newspaper Collections
Heidi Hakkarainen Media History
2021-12-19 Register phenomena as international news: risk, register, and translation in Japanese coverage of quotes from the 2020 US presidential debate Wesley Cooper Robertson Continuum
2021-12-19 Disclosing sexual abuse on a news website: a qualitative study of affective narratives Smeeta Mishra Information, Communication & Society
2021-12-19 Satire from a far-away land: psychological distance and satirical news Stephen Skalicky, Britta C. Brugman, Ellen Droog & Christian Burgers Information, Communication & Society
2021-12-19 Female Investigative Journalists: Overcoming Threats, Intimidation, and Violence with Gendered Strategies Maria Konow-Lund & Marte Høiby Journalism Practice
2021-12-19 Covering a Complicated Legacy with a Sledgehammer: Metajournalistic and Audience Discourse After Kobe Bryant’s Death Carolina Velloso, Wei-ping Li, Shannon Scovel, Nohely Alvarez, Md Mahfuzul Haque & Linda Steiner Journalism Studies
2021-12-19 Mapping Peace Journalism: Toward a Shared Understanding of Success Meagan E. Doll & Patricia Moy Journalism Studies
2021-12-20 A Robot, Meteorologist, and Amateur Forecaster Walk into A Bar: Examining Qualitative Responses to A Weather Forecast Delivered via Social Robot Adam M. Rainear, Xianlin Jin, Autumn Edwards, Chad Edwards & Patric R. Spence Communication Studies
2021-12-20 Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021): Les écritures du sport – The writing(s) of sports journalism – As escritas do jornalismo esportivo Multiple writers Sur le journalisme, About journalism, Sobre jornalismo
2021-12-20 Age Differences in Online News Consumption and Online Political Expression in the United States, United Kingdom, and France Shelley Boulianne, Adam Shehata
The International Journal of Press/Politics
2021-12-20 Public service media, innovation policy and the ‘crowding out’ problem Christian Herzog & James Meese Communication Research and Practice
2021-12-20 The Belt and Road Initiative in Australian mainstream media: Why did its narratives shift from 2013 to 2021? Yuan Jiang
Media International Australia
2021-12-20 Does the Ideology of the Newsroom Affect the Provision of Media Slant? Hans J. G. Hassell, Matthew R. Miles & Kevin Reuning Political Communication
2021-12-20 What is ‘Good’ Climate Journalism? Public Perceptions of Climate Journalism in Denmark Ida Willig,Mark Blach-Ørsten & Rasmus Burkal Journalism Practice
2021-12-21 Data-driven news work culture: Reconciling tensions in epistemic values and practices of news journalism Mats Ekström, Amanda Ramsälv, Oscar Westlund
2021-12-21 Low on trust, high on use datafied media, trust and everyday life David Mathieu, Jannie Hartley-Møller
Big Data & Society
2021-12-21 Understanding I.R. of Iran’s Media Policy: A Concentration on Regulations and Laws Hatef Pourrashidi, Javad Alipoor, Mehran Samadi & Neda Soleimani Southern Communication Journal
2021-12-21 New Online Journalism Businesses: Exploring Profiles, Models and Variables in the Current Brazilian Scenario Elizabeth Saad & Stefanie C. da Silveira Journalism Practice
2021-12-22 “The Boundaries are Blurry…”: How Comment Moderators in Germany See and Respond to Hate Comments Sünje Paasch-Colberg & Christian Strippel Journalism Studies
2021-12-23 Perpetrator witnessing: Testing the norms and forms of witnessing through livestreaming terror attacks Mette Mortensen
2021-12-23 Children and the Radio: Who Should Listen to Whom? Alice Nemcova Tejkalova, Olga Gheorghiev, Marketa Supa & Victoria Nainova Journalism Practice
2021-12-24 Redemption vs. #MeToo: How Journalists Addressed Kobe Bryant’s Rape Case in Crafting His Memory Patrick Walters Journalism Practice
2021-12-24 Managing government legitimacy during the COVID-19 pandemic in China: a semantic network analysis of state-run media Sina Weibo posts Cui Zhang Meadows, Lu Tang & Wenxue Zou Chinese Journal of Communication
2021-12-26 News from the ad archive: how journalists use the facebook ad library to hold online advertising accountable Paddy Leerssen, Tom Dobber, Natali Helberger & Claes de Vreese Information, Communication & Society
2021-12-26 When Reporters Make the News: Narrated Role Performance During Colombia’s Post-Conflict with the FARC Guerrilla Group Andrea Cancino-Borbón, Marta Milena Barrios & Lyz Salas-Vega Journalism Studies
2021-12-26 “Stop Giving Us the Negatives of the Other Side’s Aims”: The EU Referendum Through Letters to the Editor Iñaki Garcia-Blanco &Lucy Bennett Journalism Studies
2021-12-26 When Everyone’s a Critic: How U.S. Arts and Culture Critics Strategize to Maintain Their Cultural Authority Kelsey Whipple Journalism Studies
2021-12-26 Constructing the ultimate “leftover women”: Chinese media’s representation of female PhDs in the postsocialist era Xiaomeng Li Feminist Media Studies
2021-12-27 The more, the better? Effects of transparency tools and moderators on the perceived credibility of news articles Jakob Henke, Stefanie Holtrup, Wiebke Möhring
2021-12-27 Resisting the resistance (journalism): Ben Smith, Ronan Farrow, and delineating boundaries of practice Patrick Ferrucci, Gino Canella
2021-12-28 A Global Perspective on Ethics: New Resources for Teaching and Discussing Media Ethics and Journalism Ethics Kati Tusinski Berg Journal of Media Ethics
2021-12-29 Portrait of liberal chaos: RT’s antagonistic strategic narration about the Netherlands Aiden Hoyle, Helma van den Berg, Bertjan Doosje, Martijn Kitzen
Media, War & Conflict
2021-12-29 Shaping the ‘inexplicable’: A social constructionist analysis of news reporting of familicide-suicide Audrey Galvin, Fergal Quinn, Yvonne Cleary
2021-12-29 COVID-19 surveillance in Israeli press: Spatiality, mobility, and control Aya Yadlin, Avi Marciano
Mobile Media & Communication
2021-12-29 Do journalists cater to audience’s social identity? Assessing the alignment of news content with readers’ national identity orientations Miki Tanikawa
International Communication Gazette
2021-12-30 Examining the digital renewal of news communication: A categorization of presentation modes in digital journalism Lea Püchel, Christian-Mathias Wellbrock
New Media & Society
2021-12-30 “Toxic atmosphere effect”: Uncivil online comments cue negative audience perceptions of news outlet credibility Gina M Masullo, Ori Tenenboim, Shuning Lu
2021-12-30 Mitigating the consequences of negative news: How constructive journalism enhances self-efficacy and news credibility Christian Staal Bruun Overgaard
2021-12-30 “Why I quit journalism:” Former journalists’ advice giving as a way to regain control Nick Mathews, Valérie Bélair-Gagnon, Matt Carlson
2021-12-30 Discursive representation of the Article 370 abrogation: A comparative CDA of the headlines of two major Indian online news publications Arif Hussain Nadaf
2021-12-30 Logics, tensions and negotiations in the everyday life of a news-ranking algorithm Jakob Svensson
2021-12-30 The degree of heterogeneity of news consumption in Germany—Descriptive statistics and relations with individual differences in personality, ideological attitudes, and voting intentions Cornelia Sindermann, Christopher Kannen, Christian Montag
New Media & Society
2021-12-30 Examining the digital renewal of news communication: A categorization of presentation modes in digital journalism Lea Püchel, Christian-Mathias Wellbrock
New Media & Society
2021-12-30 Post-regime-change Afghan and Iraqi media systems: Strategic ambivalence as technology of media governance Mohammed A Salih
Media, War & Conflict
2021-12-31 Interactive documentary and the reinvention of digital journalism, 2015–2020 David O Dowling
Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies
2021-12-31 Stereotypes and sexism? Effects of gender, topic, and user comments on journalists’ credibility Mario Haim, Kim Maurus
2021-12-31 Pride and Anxiety: British Journalists’ Emotional Labour in the Covid-19 Pandemic Maja Šimunjak Journalism Studies

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Mastering the Art of Public Speaking: Overcoming Fear and Becoming a Confident Speaker

Alice Trout



Public speaking is a valuable skill that can open doors to personal and professional success. However, for many, the thought of speaking in front of an audience can be anxiety-inducing. The good news is that with practice and the right techniques, anyone can become a confident and effective public speaker. In this guide, we will explore how to overcome the fear of public speaking and develop the skills needed to master this art.

Understanding the Fear of Public Speaking

Public speaking anxiety, often called glossophobia, is a common fear. It can manifest as nervousness, rapid heartbeat, sweating, or even full-blown panic attacks. Understanding the root causes of this fear is the first step toward overcoming it:

1. Fear of Judgment: Many people worry about how they will be perceived by their audience, fearing judgment or criticism.

2. Lack of Confidence: A lack of confidence in one’s speaking abilities can contribute to anxiety.

3. Perfectionism: Setting unrealistically high standards for oneself can lead to performance anxiety.

4. Past Negative Experiences: A negative past speaking experience can create a fear of repeating that failure.

5. Uncertainty: Not knowing the audience or feeling unprepared can intensify anxiety.

Developing Confidence in Public Speaking

1. Prepare Thoroughly

The more you know your topic, the more confident you’ll feel. Research your subject thoroughly, organize your thoughts, and create a well-structured outline or presentation.

2. Practice, Practice, Practice

Practice your speech multiple times. Rehearse in front of a mirror, record yourself, or present to a trusted friend or family member for feedback.

3. Visualize Success

Mental rehearsal can be a powerful tool. Visualize yourself confidently delivering your speech, receiving positive feedback, and feeling a sense of accomplishment.

4. Control Your Breathing

Deep, slow breaths can calm your nerves. Practice deep breathing exercises before and during your speech to help manage anxiety.

5. Start Small

Build your confidence gradually by speaking in front of smaller, more supportive groups before tackling larger audiences.

6. Focus on Your Message, Not Yourself

Shift your focus from self-doubt to your message and the value you are providing to your audience. Concentrate on how your message can benefit them.

7. Engage with Your Audience

Interact with your audience by making eye contact, asking questions, and encouraging participation. This creates a more engaging and less intimidating atmosphere.

8. Use Visual Aids Wisely

Visual aids, such as slides or props, can enhance your presentation. However, use them sparingly and ensure they complement your message rather than distract from it.

9. Embrace Imperfections

Accept that nobody is perfect, and even experienced speakers make mistakes. Embrace any slip-ups with humor or grace, and keep going.

10. Seek Professional Training

Consider enrolling in a public speaking course or working with a speaking coach to improve your skills and confidence.

Managing Nervousness

Even with preparation and practice, nervousness before speaking is natural. Here are some strategies to manage it:

1. Arrive Early: Arriving early allows you to familiarize yourself with the venue and test any equipment.

2. Use Relaxation Techniques: Deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, or meditation can help calm your nerves.

3. Stay Hydrated: Drink water to prevent a dry mouth, which is a common physical manifestation of anxiety.

4. Avoid Caffeine: Limit caffeine intake on the day of your speech, as it can exacerbate nervousness.

5. Focus on Your Message: Keep your attention on the content and value of your speech, rather than your anxiety.

6. Use Positive Self-Talk: Replace negative thoughts with positive affirmations to boost your confidence.

Continued Improvement

Becoming a confident public speaker is an ongoing process. Here are some tips for continued improvement:

1. Record Your Speeches: Recording your speeches allows you to review your performance and identify areas for improvement.

2. Seek Feedback: Encourage constructive feedback from peers or mentors to refine your speaking skills.

3. Set Speaking Goals: Continuously challenge yourself by setting goals for speaking engagements or skill development.

4. Join a Toastmasters Club: Toastmasters International is a renowned organization that helps individuals improve their public speaking skills through practice and feedback.

In Conclusion

Public speaking is a skill that can be mastered with time and effort. By understanding the root causes of your fear, preparing thoroughly, practicing regularly, and implementing confidence-boosting techniques, you can become a confident and effective public speaker. Remember that it’s normal to feel nervous, but with the right strategies and mindset, you can turn that nervous energy into a powerful tool for engaging and inspiring your audience.

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The Power of Affirmations: Using Positive Affirmations to Boost Self-Esteem

Alice Trout




Self-esteem plays a vital role in our overall well-being and success in life. It influences how we perceive ourselves, how we handle challenges, and the quality of our relationships. Low self-esteem can lead to self-doubt, anxiety, and missed opportunities, while high self-esteem can empower us to pursue our dreams with confidence. One effective tool for improving self-esteem is the use of positive affirmations. In this article, we will explore the power of affirmations and how they can be employed to boost self-esteem.

Understanding Self-Esteem

Before delving into the world of affirmations, it’s essential to understand what self-esteem is. Self-esteem is the subjective evaluation of one’s worth, which can either be positive (high self-esteem) or negative (low self-esteem). High self-esteem is associated with self-confidence, resilience, and a positive outlook on life. On the other hand, low self-esteem can lead to self-criticism, fear of failure, and a lack of self-belief.

What Are Affirmations?

Affirmations are positive statements that are consciously repeated to instill specific beliefs or thoughts into the mind. They are designed to challenge and overcome negative self-talk and replace it with more constructive, empowering beliefs. Affirmations can be used for various purposes, but in the context of self-esteem, they are tailored to boost self-worth and confidence.

The Science Behind Affirmations

The effectiveness of affirmations is rooted in psychological principles. When we repeat positive affirmations, we engage in a process known as self-affirmation theory. This theory suggests that individuals are motivated to protect their self-concept and self-integrity. Affirmations allow us to reinforce positive aspects of our identity, making it easier to dismiss negative thoughts and self-doubt.

Research also shows that affirmations can have a significant impact on our brain. Repeating affirmations can lead to increased activity in areas of the brain associated with self-processing and self-worth. This means that affirmations can literally change the way we think about ourselves.

How to Create Effective Affirmations

Not all affirmations are equally effective. To harness the power of affirmations for boosting self-esteem, consider the following tips when creating your own:

  1. Be Positive and Present: Affirmations should be stated in the present tense and be positive. For example, say, “I am confident and capable,” rather than, “I will be confident and capable.”
  2. Make Them Specific: Address the specific areas of self-esteem that you want to improve. If you struggle with self-worth, use affirmations like, “I am worthy of love and respect.”
  3. Use the First Person: Phrase affirmations in the first person to personalize them. Say, “I am” or “I have” instead of “You are” or “You have.”
  4. Keep Them Realistic: While affirmations are meant to be positive, they should also be grounded in reality. Avoid affirmations that are too far from your current beliefs, as they may feel disingenuous.
  5. Repeat Regularly: Consistency is key. Repeating affirmations daily, preferably in the morning and evening, can reinforce the positive beliefs you’re trying to instill.

Incorporating Affirmations into Your Daily Routine

Now that you know how to create effective affirmations, it’s crucial to incorporate them into your daily routine. Here are some strategies for doing so:

  1. Morning Ritual: Start your day with a set of affirmations that boost your self-esteem. This can set a positive tone for the day ahead.
  2. Visual Aids: Write down your affirmations on sticky notes or create a vision board with images and phrases that represent your goals and positive self-beliefs.
  3. Mobile Apps: There are several mobile apps designed to help you practice affirmations daily. These apps can send reminders and track your progress.
  4. Journaling: Incorporate affirmations into your journaling practice. Reflect on your affirmations and your progress regularly.

The Transformational Impact of Affirmations

As you integrate affirmations into your daily life, you’ll likely start noticing positive changes in your self-esteem. Over time, you may experience:

  • Increased Confidence: Affirmations can bolster your self-confidence, helping you tackle challenges and take risks.
  • Reduced Self-Doubt: Negative self-talk can be replaced with affirmations, reducing self-doubt and anxiety.
  • Improved Relationships: Higher self-esteem often leads to healthier relationships, as you value and respect yourself more, which encourages others to do the same.
  • Enhanced Resilience: With a stronger sense of self-worth, you’ll become more resilient in the face of adversity.


The power of affirmations in boosting self-esteem is well-documented and accessible to anyone willing to embrace this practice. By understanding the psychology behind affirmations, crafting effective statements, and incorporating them into your daily routine, you can embark on a transformative journey towards higher self-esteem. With consistent effort and a positive mindset, you can rewrite the script of your self-concept and realize your full potential. Remember, you are worthy of love, success, and all the positive experiences life has to offer.

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Crafting Your Personal Mission Statement: Defining Your Life’s Purpose and Goals

Alice Trout



A personal mission statement is a powerful tool for clarifying your life’s purpose, values, and long-term goals. It serves as a guiding compass that helps you make decisions, set priorities, and stay focused on what truly matters to you. In this guide, we will explore the importance of creating a personal mission statement and provide practical steps to craft one that reflects your aspirations and values.

Why Create a Personal Mission Statement?

A personal mission statement is like a roadmap for your life. Here’s why it’s worth investing time and effort into crafting one:

1. Clarity and Focus

A mission statement helps you define your purpose and what you want to achieve in life. It provides clarity and direction, allowing you to make decisions that align with your values and goals.

2. Goal Setting

It serves as a foundation for setting meaningful, achievable goals. Your mission statement can guide you in setting both short-term and long-term objectives that are in line with your life’s purpose.

3. Motivation

A well-crafted mission statement can serve as a source of motivation and inspiration during challenging times. It reminds you of your core values and why you’re pursuing your goals.

4. Alignment with Values

It helps you live a life that is in alignment with your values. Your mission statement acts as a filter, helping you prioritize activities, relationships, and opportunities that resonate with your beliefs.

5. Resilience

In times of adversity, your personal mission statement can provide resilience and determination. It reminds you of the bigger picture and encourages perseverance.

Steps to Craft Your Personal Mission Statement

Creating a personal mission statement is a reflective process that requires introspection and thoughtful consideration. Follow these steps to craft your own:

1. Self-Reflection

Take time to reflect on your life, values, and beliefs. Consider the following questions:

  • What are my core values?
  • What activities bring me the most joy and fulfillment?
  • What do I want to achieve in my lifetime?
  • What impact do I want to have on the world or my community?
  • What legacy do I want to leave behind?

2. Define Your Purpose

Based on your reflections, write a concise statement that defines your life’s purpose. This should be a single sentence that captures the essence of what you want to achieve or contribute to the world.

3. Identify Your Values

List your core values. These are the principles and beliefs that guide your decisions and actions. Examples of values include integrity, compassion, creativity, and perseverance.

4. Set Goals

Identify specific, measurable goals that align with your purpose and values. These goals should reflect both short-term and long-term aspirations. Consider goals related to your career, personal development, relationships, and contributions to society.

5. Draft Your Mission Statement

Now, combine your purpose, values, and goals into a concise mission statement. Your mission statement should be clear, inspiring, and true to who you are. Here’s a basic structure to follow:

“I am [your name], and my mission is to [your purpose], guided by my core values of [list your values]. I will achieve this by [briefly describe how you will work toward your goals]. My mission is to [desired impact or legacy].”

6. Refine and Revise

Crafting a mission statement is an iterative process. Write a draft, reflect on it, and revise as needed. Seek feedback from trusted friends or mentors who know you well to ensure your statement accurately reflects your aspirations.

7. Live Your Mission

Once you have a final mission statement, use it as a daily guide. Make choices and set priorities that align with your mission. Periodically revisit your statement to ensure it remains relevant as your life evolves.

Examples of Personal Mission Statements

Here are a few examples of personal mission statements for inspiration:

  • “I am [your name], and my mission is to inspire others through creativity and innovation, guided by my core values of integrity, collaboration, and perseverance. I will achieve this by continuously learning, sharing my knowledge, and creating meaningful art that impacts people’s lives positively. My mission is to leave a legacy of creativity that sparks inspiration in others.”
  • “I am [your name], and my mission is to promote health and well-being in my community, guided by my core values of compassion, empathy, and service. I will achieve this by pursuing a career in healthcare, volunteering at local organizations, and educating others about healthy living. My mission is to make a positive impact on the health and happiness of those around me.”
  • “I am [your name], and my mission is to foster a world where every child has access to quality education, guided by my core values of equality, education, and empowerment. I will achieve this by working in the field of education, volunteering with organizations that support children’s education, and advocating for policy changes that improve access to education. My mission is to leave a legacy of knowledge and empowerment.”

In Conclusion

Crafting a personal mission statement is a transformative process that can bring clarity, purpose, and fulfillment to your life. It serves as a roadmap for your journey, guiding your decisions and actions in alignment with your values and goals. Take the time to reflect on what truly matters to you, define your purpose, and create a mission statement that inspires you to live a meaningful and purpose-driven life.

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