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Framework for audience fragmentation as a global phenomenon using India as a case study

Patricia Cruz



The study “Rethinking Audience Fragmentation Using a Theory of News Reading Publics: Online India as a Case Study” by Subhayan Mukerjee from National University of Singapore used the case of online India to build a more inclusive theoretical framework for audience fragmentation studies that is not so Western-centric but extends to the Global South.

Audience behavior has been studied through the dual lenses of audience fragmentation and audience duplication. Audience fragmentation refers to the idea that people increasingly use media they only share with a group of like-minded audience members. 

Audience duplication, on the other hand, refers to the fact that while the audience for an outlet may seem small and circumscribed, many people use numerous different media and the audience of a single media consists of people of many persuasions.

This study aimed to fill the gap in there by building on the existing research on audience fragmentation by including India, the largest democracy in the World, on the discussion. India is not only an interesting case in itself but also relevant to the whole Global South. The study is the first to offer large-scale quantitative evidence on news consumption in the Global South. 

News consumption research has been linked to studies on audience fragmentation, as the increasing options for news sources have led to selection that has been fragmented in nature. The presumptive pattern is that there used to be an unified, shared media and the turn has been gradual toward fragmentation. This notion, however, is not applicable to developing countries. 

India, in particular, historically has had 20 official languages, low literacy rate leading to low newspaper readership, and lack of television in many households, so clearly the country has not had a shared media experience only later to be fragmented. 

Rather, the media market has been fragmented from the beginning. Thus, existing theories that rely on the gradual fragmentation framework are unable to explain India or developing countries.

Theoretically, this study relied on four strands of research. First, the Uses and Gratifications theory (UGT), which focuses on what people do with media. Second, Social Identity theory, which posits that the social category people fall to and feel they belong to defines who one is. Third, issue publics, used to study how people organize. Lastly, Cultural Proximity theory, which claims that people prefer culturally close news, such as indigenous news over Western news. 

Empirically, the study utilized a dataset from ComScore that tracked the desktop browsing behavior of over 50,000 users over a period of 45 months. The author built co-exposure or  audience overlap networks for every month and combined them into a single network. 

The analysis revealed that fragmentation was more prominent in the three southern states, where three South Indian languages had their own communities within the network. The communities were more distinct there. Likely due to the dominance of Hindi in the northern states, the fragmentation was lower there. The Keralite news reading public was also interestingly fractured in two.

The author suggests that conceptualizing news consumption through the lens of news reading publics is an inductive approach and not dependent on the context on which is applied, so that it can be used to study news consumption elsewhere in the world and the Global South. It can be presumed that similar fragmentation results occur in other multilingual countries. 

In countries where the public is divided on other lines than the language, more granular data is needed to identify the news reading publics. The audience might be divided along demographic lines or along ideological lines. 

The author notes that the dataset did not include mobile browsing data with cell phones, which is a limitation. The second limitation is that it is not certain whether the results are generalizable to offline formats like print and broadcast. Nevertheless, the results and the framework proposed are important contributions to the field.

The study  “Rethinking Audience Fragmentation Using a Theory of News Reading Publics: Online India as a Case Study” by Subhayan Mukerjee is in The International Journal of Press/Politics. (free abstract).

Picture: Untitled by no name @abhijith__s_nair

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The benefits of practicing mindfulness and how to start

Alice Trout



In today’s fast-paced world, it’s easy to get caught up in the chaos of everyday life. Between work, family, and other responsibilities, we often forget to take care of ourselves. This is where mindfulness comes in. Mindfulness is the practice of being present in the moment, without judgment. In this article, we will explore the benefits of practicing mindfulness and how to start.

Benefits of Practicing Mindfulness

  1. Reduces stress and anxiety

Mindfulness can help to reduce stress and anxiety levels. By focusing on the present moment, you can calm your mind and reduce racing thoughts.

  1. Improves mental clarity

Practicing mindfulness can improve mental clarity and focus. It can help to clear your mind of distractions and increase productivity.

  1. Enhances self-awareness

Mindfulness can increase self-awareness and help you to understand your thoughts and emotions better. By being present in the moment, you can learn to recognize your patterns of thinking and behavior.

  1. Improves relationships

Mindfulness can help to improve relationships by increasing empathy and compassion. By being present with others, you can develop a deeper understanding of their needs and feelings.

How to Start Practicing Mindfulness

  1. Set aside time

Set aside a specific time every day to practice mindfulness. It can be as little as 5-10 minutes per day to start.

  1. Find a quiet space

Find a quiet space where you won’t be disturbed. It could be a quiet corner of your home or a quiet park.

  1. Focus on your breath

Focus on your breath and the physical sensations of breathing. Notice the rise and fall of your chest and the sensation of air moving in and out of your body.

  1. Be present

Allow yourself to be present in the moment without judgment. Let your thoughts and emotions come and go without dwelling on them.

  1. Practice regularly

Make mindfulness a regular practice. It takes time to develop the habit, but the benefits are worth it.

In conclusion, practicing mindfulness can have numerous benefits for our mental and physical well-being. It’s a simple yet powerful practice that can be incorporated into our daily lives. By setting aside a few minutes each day to practice mindfulness, we can reduce stress and anxiety, improve mental clarity, and enhance our relationships. So why not give it a try? Your mind and body will thank you for it.

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How to create a perfect morning routine for a productive day

Alice Trout



Do you ever feel like your day has gotten away from you before it even starts? One way to combat this feeling is to create a perfect morning routine. Establishing a routine can help you start your day off on the right foot, and set the tone for a productive and successful day. Here are some tips on how to create a morning routine that works for you.

Determine Your Priorities

Before you start creating a morning routine, it’s important to determine what your priorities are. What are the things that you want to accomplish in the morning? Do you want to exercise, meditate, or have a healthy breakfast? Once you have a list of your priorities, you can start creating a routine that includes them.

Wake Up at the Same Time Every Day

Waking up at the same time every day can help regulate your body’s natural sleep cycle and make it easier to fall asleep at night. Try to wake up at the same time every day, even on weekends. This can help establish a consistent routine and make it easier to stick to.

Take Time for Yourself

Many people feel rushed and stressed in the morning, but taking some time for yourself can help alleviate this feeling. Whether it’s meditating, reading a book, or simply enjoying a cup of coffee, taking time for yourself can help you start your day feeling calm and centered.


Exercise is a great way to start your day, as it can help increase your energy levels and improve your mood. Whether it’s a quick jog, yoga practice, or weightlifting session, try to include some form of exercise in your morning routine.

Eat a Healthy Breakfast

Breakfast is often called the most important meal of the day, and for good reason. Eating a healthy breakfast can help fuel your body and provide the energy you need to start your day. Try to include protein, whole grains, and fruit or vegetables in your breakfast.

Plan Your Day

Taking a few minutes to plan your day can help you stay focused and productive. Make a to-do list or set priorities for the day, and review your calendar to make sure you’re prepared for any meetings or appointments.

Stick to Your Routine

Once you’ve created a morning routine that works for you, try to stick to it as much as possible. Consistency is key, and sticking to your routine can help establish healthy habits and improve your overall productivity.

In conclusion, creating a perfect morning routine can help set the tone for a productive and successful day. By determining your priorities, waking up at the same time every day, taking time for yourself, exercising, eating a healthy breakfast, planning your day, and sticking to your routine, you can create a morning routine that works for you. Remember, it’s all about finding what works best for you and your lifestyle.

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10 simple yet effective ways to reduce stress in your daily life

Alice Trout



Stress is an inevitable part of our lives, but it can have a negative impact on our mental and physical health if left unchecked. Fortunately, there are several simple yet effective ways to reduce stress in our daily lives. In this article, we will explore 10 such methods that you can easily incorporate into your routine.

Exercise regularly

Physical activity is an excellent way to relieve stress. It helps to release endorphins, which are natural mood-boosters. You don’t have to engage in high-intensity workouts to reap the benefits. Even a brisk walk or light yoga can help reduce stress levels.

Get enough sleep

Lack of sleep can cause irritability, mood swings, and increase stress levels. Make sure you get at least 7-8 hours of sleep every night to feel well-rested and refreshed.

Practice deep breathing

Deep breathing techniques such as diaphragmatic breathing can help to calm your mind and body. Inhale deeply through your nose and exhale slowly through your mouth. Repeat this for a few minutes to feel relaxed.

Spend time in nature

Spending time in nature can have a calming effect on your mind and body. Take a walk in the park or go for a hike in the woods to feel rejuvenated.

Practice mindfulness meditation

Mindfulness meditation involves focusing on the present moment without judgment. It can help to reduce stress and anxiety levels. Set aside a few minutes every day to practice mindfulness meditation.

Listen to music

Music has a soothing effect on our minds. Listening to calming music can help to reduce stress levels. Create a playlist of your favorite relaxing tunes and listen to it when you feel stressed.

Practice yoga or tai chi

Yoga and tai chi are ancient practices that combine physical postures and breathing techniques. They can help to reduce stress levels and promote relaxation.

Connect with loved ones

Talking to friends and family members can help to reduce stress levels. It can provide a sense of comfort and support during challenging times.

Practice gratitude

Focusing on the positive aspects of life can help to reduce stress levels. Make a habit of practicing gratitude by writing down things you are thankful for every day.

Take breaks

Taking short breaks throughout the day can help to reduce stress levels. Go for a short walk, practice deep breathing or simply take a few moments to close your eyes and relax.

In conclusion, stress is a part of life, but it doesn’t have to take over. By incorporating these simple yet effective methods into your daily routine, you can reduce stress levels and improve your overall well-being. Remember, taking care of yourself should always be a top priority.

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